Boletín de la Sociedad Zoológica del Uruguay, 2022
Vol. 31 (2): e31.2.4
ISSN 2393-6940
https://journal.szu.org.uy
DOI: https://doi.org/10.26462/31.2.4
ABSTRACT
The Serra Dona Francisca is in the subtropical region of
the Atlantic Forest and part of its area is protected by a
sustainable use conservation unit. In the present study, we
performed an anuran inventory at different elevations,
providing information on natural history of each species.
Field work was carried out from October 2012 to January
2014. We sampled the anuran by visual and auditory
surveys and used three 50-meter pitfall lines composed of
four 60L buckets with drift-fences at each elevation area.
We registered 63 species belonging to 13 families:
Brachycephalidae (4), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (1),
Craugastoridae (1), Cycloramphidae (2), Hemiphractidae
(2), Hylidae (30), Hylodidae (2), Leptodactylidae (10),
Microhylidae (2), Odontophrynidae (3), Phyllomedusidae
(1), and Ranidae (1). We observed four new records for
the northeastern region of the state of Santa Catarina:
Bokermannohyla luctuosa, Scinax aromothyella,
Odontophrynus americanus, and Leptodactylus
plaumanni. We registered a higher number of species
during the hot and wet months, with subsequent drop
during the cold months. We found an increase of species
richness at higher elevations. Considering that our results
represent 50% of anuran richness of the state of Santa
Catarina, this is an important region for conservation of
biodiversity of southern Atlantic Forest.
Keywords: Subtropical, anura, conservation,
inventory
RESUMEN
La Serra Dona Francisca está ubicada en la región
subtropical de la Mata Atlántica y parte de su área está
protegida por una unidad de conservación de uso
sostenible. En el presente estudio, realizamos un
inventario de anuros a diferentes elevaciones,
proporcionando información sobre la historia natural de
cada especie. El trabajo de campo se llevó a cabo desde
octubre de 2012 hasta enero de 2014. Tomamos
muestras de los anuros mediante búsqueda activa y
utilizamos tres líneas de trampa de caída de 50 metros
compuestas por cuatro baldes de 60 litros con cercas de
deriva en cada área de elevación. Registramos 63
especies pertenecientes a 13 familias: Brachycephalidae
(4), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (1), Craugastoridae (1),
Cycloramphidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae (30),
Hylodidae (2), Leptodactylidae (10), Microhylidae (2),
Odontophrynidae (3), Phyllomedusidae (1) y Ranidae (1).
Observamos cuatro nuevos registros para la región
nororiental del estado d e Santa Catarina:
Bokermannohyla luctuosa, Scinax aromothyella,
Odontophrynus americanus y Leptodactylus plaumanni.
Registramos un mayor número de especies durante los
meses cálidos y húmedos, con la consiguiente
disminución durante los meses fríos. Encontramos un
aumento de la riqueza de especies en elevaciones más
altas. Teniendo en cuenta nuestros resultados que
representan el 50% de la riqueza de anuros del estado de
Santa Catarina, esta es una región importante para la
conservación de la biodiversidad de la Mata Atlántica Sur.
Palabras clave: Subtropical, anura, conservación,
inventario
INTRODUCTION
The Serra Dona Francisca is a historic and natural area
that has been of great scientific value since the XIX
century, when a land glebe from the Santa Catarina
province was given as a dowry to the prince of Joinville,
François d'Orléans, with Princess Francisca Carolina,
the sister of emperor Dom Pedro II (Ficker, 1965). This
region was colonized for logging and development of
agricultural activities, which were subsistence ways for
Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2ª época). 2022. ISSN 2393-6940Vol. 31 (2): e31.2.4
ANURAN NATURAL HISTORY FROM SERRA DONA FRANCISCA, AN ATLANTIC FOREST REMNANT IN
SOUTHERN BRAZIL
Lucas Ribeiro Mariotto¹* , Sarah Mângia² and Diego José Santana²
1Instituto Blumenauense de Ensino Superior – Centro Universitário UNISOCIESC, 89010-350,
Blumenau, SC, Brazil.
2Instituto de Biociências, Universidade Federal de Mato Grosso do Sul, 79002-970, Campo Grande, MS, Brazil.
*Corresponding author: lucasrmariotto@gmail.com
Fecha de recepción: 11 de julio de 2022
Fecha de aceptación: 6 de octubre de 2022
.
2
MARIOTTO, L.R. et al.
the newly arrived European immigrants, especially
Germans and Austrians (Ficker, 1965; Rodowicz-
Oswiecimsky, 1992). The new Dona Francisca colony
also attracted many European naturalists to explore its
rich nature, which resulted in the description of new
animal species for the south of Brazil. Regarding
amphibians, George Albert Boulenger, from the British
Natural History Museum, received many specimens in
the late XIX century collected by Hr. Michäelis
(Boulenger, 1888a). Boulenger listed 21 species for the
Santa Catarina province and described four of them:
Scinax catharinae (Boulenger, 1888a), Vitreorana
parvula (Boulenger, 1894), Physalaemus nanus
(Boulenger, 1888b), and Chiasmocleis leucosticta
(Boulenger, 1888a). In the late XIX and early XX
centuries, while living in the Hansa-Humbolt colony,
adjacent to the Dona Francisca colony, Willhelm
Ehrhardt collected 43 amphibian species (Gutsche,
Kwet, Kucharzewski and Hallermann, 2007, Gutsche,
Kwet, Kucharzewski, Lingnau and Güther, 2007). In
subsequent studies made by Dr. Lorenz Müller, three
new amphibian species were described for this region:
Adenomera nana (Müller, 1922), Vitreorana
uranoscopa (Müller, 1924) and Aplastodiscus ehrhardti
(Müller, 1924). Furthermore, Müller listed 23 amphibian
species for the colony and 38 species for Santa
Catarina province (Müller, 1922).
Currently, amphibians (Lissamphibia) comprise more
than 8400 species in the world (Frost, 2021), and Brazil
harbors the highest diversity (1188 species, Segalla et
al., 2021), with 625 species occurring in the Atlantic
Forest (Rossa-Feres et al., 2017). According to Lucas
(2008), there are 122 amphibian species in the state of
Santa Catarina, 77 of which are known for the Serra
Dona Francisca region, including São Bento do Sul,
Campo Alegre, Joinville, and Corupá municipalities,
north-eastern region of the state. This number
represents 63% of all amphibian species found in the
state, which emphasizes the value of this region for
amphibian conservation. It is also worth noting that
recent species records and anuran descriptions
increased this number of species (e.g., Lucas and
Garcia, 2011, Bruschi, Lucas, Garcia and Recco-
Pimentel. 2014, Monteiro, Condez, Garcia, Comitti,
Amaral, and Haddad, 2014, Bornschein et al. 2015,
Condez et al. 2016, Monteiro, Comitti and Lingnau.
2014, Lourenço, Lingnau, Haddad and Faivovich,
2019). Although the Atlantic Forest has been greatly
reduced and fragmented (Ribeiro, Metzger,
Martensen, Ponzoni and Hirota, 2009), it harbors many
endemic species, which characterizes the biome as a
biodiversity hotspot (Myers, Mittermeier, Mittermeier,
Fonseca and Kent, 2000). Therefore, studies focusing
on tropical diversity are imperative to evaluate the
conservation status of this environment and manage
the regional species list (Verdade et al., 2012), that
adds value to a preserved patrimony.
Given the historical importance of the Serra Dona
Francisca and the lack of information for several areas
in the Atlantic Forest biome, we performed an anuran
inventory in the Serra Dona Francisca. We gathered
data on natural history for each species recorded,
describing their temporal and spatial distribution,
especially along the elevational gradient. In addition,
we compared the species composition with other
anuran communities from subtropical Atlantic Forest
Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2ª época). 2022. ISSN 2393-6940Vol. 31 (2): e31.2.4
Fig. 1. SC-301 highway
lookout located just up of
Serra Dona Francisca
showing an example of the
exuberant Atlantic Forest
regi o n ( S u b - M o n t a n e
O m b ro p h i l o u s D e n s e
Forest - Lat -26.193884º
Lon -49.035562).
3Anuran Natural History from Serra Dona Francisca
and provided comments on forest fragment
conservation and preservation efforts in this
sustainable use conservation unit.
MATERIAL AND METHODS
Study area
In the Serra Dona Francisca (Fig. 1) there is the
“Área de Proteção Ambiental Serra Dona Francisca”
(APA; Environmental Protection Area), a sustainable
use conservation unit, with 41000 hectares under the
environmental agency management FUNDEMA
(Fundação Municipal do Meio Ambiente), from Joinville
municipality, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil. The region
is characterized by geological formations of Serra
Geral and Serra do Mar mountain ranges, with the
Cubatão River as the main watershed (Scheibe, 1986,
Peluso Jr, 1991). There is no dry season in the region,
but a period of higher rainfall intensity from spring to
summer seasons was recorded (Klein, 1960). The
historical mean amplitude of temperature is
12.3–24.5ºC, and mean amplitude of precipitation is
77.7–282.3 mm (INMET, for the nearest climatic
stations, Porto União and São Francisco do Sul
municipalities, from 1931 to 1990).
Sampling
We established four sampling localities at different
elevations (100, 300, 700 and 1000 m) in the Serra
Dona Francisca, within Joinville and Campo Alegre
municipalities, with the highest elevation at 1200 m
(Table 1, Fig. 2).
Field work was carried out in 16 months, totalling
68 sampling days. The first 12 campaigns occurred
from October 2012 to March 2013, with two campaigns
each month throughout the elevation gradient
established, using the two methods described below.
The following 10 campaigns were carried out from April
2013 to January 2014, in which we performed one
campaign each month in the two categories of highest
elevation (700 and 1000 m), Araucaria Forest and
Montane Ombrophilous Forest, using only the surveys
at breeding sites method. Such change in our sampling
was due to logistic support that change through the
monitoring.
We applied two sampling methods: (1) SBS -
surveys at breeding sites, following Scott Jr and
Woodward (1994), and (2) PT - pitfall traps (Corn,
1994). The SBS method consisted of visual and
auditory surveys and counting the richness of anuran in
breeding sites either in the forest interior, streams,
swamps, or ponds. We selected at least five breeding
sites at each elevation, totalling 34 breeding sites in all
sampled area. In the forest and stream, we sampled
120 m transects, counting the anuran species that used
these habitats for reproduction through visual and
auditory surveys. Each elevation was visited for one
night in each sampling, with activities starting at dusk,
from 20:00 h to 24:00 h, totaling 272 person-hours of
sampling. The PT method consisted of three lines of
pitfall traps at each sampled elevation. The lines were
built with four 60-liter plastic buckets, all connected with
a 50 m-long and 1 m-high drift-fence. The buckets were
open for four consecutive nights in each campaign,
totalling 48 bucket-days and 4608 hours of total
sampling effort. We checked the traps every morning
while they were open, and we captured, identified,
measured, and marked all anuran found in buckets.
After these proceedings we released the animals next
to the traps where they were first captured. This method
was only applied in the first 12 campaigns of this study.
Some vouchers were collected, and the specimens
were deposited in the Zoology Scientific Collection at
the Universidade Regional de Blumenau (FURB:
22166…22952) and in the Herpetological Collection of
Ribeirão Preto (CHRP: 1387– 1390).
During fieldwork, we also obtained information on
the anurans' breeding behaviour and spatial-temporal
occupation in the environment: the habitat (forest
interior, forest edge, open area, lentic, lotic),
microhabitat (leaf litter, stream banks, shrubs, grasses,
trees, bromeliads, rivers, ponds, marshes, aquatic
vegetation, water), perch type at the reproductive
activity (bromeliads, tree, shrub, grasses, herbaceous,
soil, rocks), and activities (calling, foraging,
amplecting). The reproduction period for all the species
was categorized by the presence of ovigerous females,
amplected couples, spawning and/or tadpoles and
juveniles. We classified the species as continuous,
prolonged, or explosive breeders as proposed by
Crump (1974), Wells (1977) and Prado, Uetanabaro
and Haddad (2004). According to Prado et al. (2004),
continuous breeders are species with individuals that
reproduce throughout the year; prolonged breeders
are species with more than three months of
reproduction and asynchronous arrival of females to
breeding sites, with males showing territoriality
behaviour; and explosive breeders present
reproductive activity for only a few days or weeks with
synchronous arrival of females and males. The
reproductive modes were classified following Nunes-
de-Almeida, Haddad and Toledo (2021).
For some species, we provide bioacoustics
information to support taxonomic identification. We
registered anuran calls using a Marantz PMD 661
digital recorder (sample rate 24000) with a YOGA HT-
81 directional microphone. We analysed the recorded
calls in the Audacity software (version 2.2.1).
Ecological analyses
We performed rarefaction/extrapolation curves
based on incidence (samples in campaigns) for each
method (SBS and PT) separately. We observed the
Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2ª época). 2022. ISSN 2393-6940Vol. 31 (2): e31.2.4
Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2ª época). 2022. Vol. 31 (2): e31.2.4 ISSN 2393-6940
Anuran Natural History from Serra Dona Francisca4
Fig. 2. Sampled points (black diamonds) in Serra Dona Francisca, Joinville municipality, Brazil. The shades area repre-
sents the contour line of the sustainable use environmental protection area (Serra Dona Francisca).
5Anuran Natural History from Serra Dona Francisca
Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2ª época). 2022. ISSN 2393-6940Vol. 31 (2): e31.2.4
Table 1. Geographic coordinates (Datum: WGS 84), elevation, phytophysiognomies (Veloso et al. 2012) and relief of the four sampled
localities and their sampled breeding sites (SBS) and pitfall traps (PT) of Serra Dona Francisca, Joinville and Campo Alegre, Santa
Catarina, Brazil. Legends: DOSF - dense ombrophilous sub-montane forest, DMOF - ecotype between dense and mix ombrophilous
forest, MOFS - ecotype between mix ombrophilous forest (Araucaria Forest) and steppe vegetation.
Sampled Locality Vegetation Relief
Sampled Point Latitude Longitude elevation Method Type of Breeding Site/ Landscape
1000 MOFS upland
A15 26°12'10.56" 49°14'39.16" 970 SBS lentic permanent/forest edge
A16 26°12'11.05" 49°14'44.60" 960 SBS lentic permanent/open land
A17 26°12'8.91" 49°14'44.88" 963 SBS lentic permanent/open land
A21 26°12'57.40" 49°13'9.91" 1020 SBS lentic permanent/forest edge
A22 26°12'50.65" 49°13'13.11"1 022 SBS lentic temporary/open land
A23 26°12'47.14" 49°13'20.43" 984 SBS lentic temporary/forest interior
A24 26°13'7.05" 49°13'19.88" 917 SBS lentic temporary/open land
A25 26°12'45.81" 49°14'16.41" 1025 SBS lentic temporary/open land
A26 26°11'20.82" 49°15'3.10" 1029 SBS lentic temporary/open land
TF1000 26°12'41.19" 49°14'15.95" 992 SBS forest interior
TS1000 26°12'48.74" 49°13'18.68" 1014 SBS lotic permanent/forest interior
1000A 26°12'46.87" 49°13'14.86"1 020 PT forest interior
1000B 26°12'51.01" 49°13'11.72" 1036 PT forest interior
1000C 26°12'56.35" 49°13'9.04" 1033 PT forest interior
700 DMOF upland
B18 26°16'59.74" 49° 6'9.54" 636 SBS lentic permanent/forest edge
B19 26°16'56.81" 49° 6'9.87" 626 SBS lentic temporary/forest interior
B21 26°17'18.26" 49° 7'6.41" 613 SBS lentic temporary/open land
B22 26°17'20.82" 49° 7'4.97" 630 SBS lentic permanent/open land
B5 26°15'44.36" 49° 5'50.43" 651 SBS lentic permanent/edge forest
TF700 26°17'2.15" 49° 6'8.86" 649 SBS forest interior
TS700 26°17'0.96" 49° 6'8.28" 659 SBS lotic permanent/forest interior
700A 26°17'2.49" 49° 6'8.49" 639 PT forest interior
700B 26°17'0.21" 49° 6'9.04" 615 PT forest interior
700C 26°17'0.82" 49° 6'10.55" 626 PT forest interior
300 DOSF mountain climb
C43 26°10'13.58"48° 59'47.30" 118 SBS lentic permanent/edge forest
C48 26°10'40.78" 49° 0'22.17" 177 SBS lentic temporary/edge forest
C49 26°10'32.11" 49° 0'23.11" 165 SBS lentic permanent/open land
TF300 26°10'44.78" 49° 0'24.24" 148 SBS forest interior
TS300 26°10'48.69" 49° 0'20.24" 259 SBS lotic permanent/forest interior
300A 26°10'47.11" 49° 0'20.31" 219 PT forest interior
300B 26°10'52.50" 49° 0'20.03" 242 PT forest interior
300C 26°10'55.45" 49° 0'18.27" 262 PT forest interior
100 DOSF lowland
C1 26° 8'34.76" 49° 0'21.68" 85 SBS lentic permanent/edge forest
C24 26° 8'59.50" 48°59'33.91" 74 SBS lentic temporary/edge forest
C25 26° 8'58.92" 48°59'32.13" 72 SBS lentic permanent/open land
C28 26° 9'5.08" 48°59'27.88" 75 SBS lentic permanent/open land
C29 26° 9'2.85" 48°59'27.07" 77 SBS lentic temporary/open land
MARIOTTO, L.R. et al.
asymptote of the curves (Chao's richness index)
comparing the observed richness and estimated
richness by Hill numbers (order q=0) (the endpoint of
both methods for extrapolation was 40 campaigns)
(Hsieh, Ma and Chao, 2016). To compare the species
diversity among sampled localities (100, 300, 700 and
1000 m) per method (SBS and PT), we estimated the
richness (Hill number q=0), Shannon diversity (Hill
number q=1) and Simpson diversity (Hill number q=2)
using rarefaction/extrapolation curves based on
abundance (the standard function remained, which
was twice the sample size). Only for SBS method, we
used, as the value of abundance, the sum of the higher
abundance recorded for each species in each breeding
site during sampling campaigns (Table 2). Since the
differences of sampling efforts (number of breeding
sites) among sampled localities might influence the
species diversity comparisons, we plotted sample
completeness curves, which is a comparison of point
diversities for some sample size using the same
rarefaction/extrapolation curves described above. We
used the iNEXT package in R environment for such
analyses (Hsieh et al., 2016, R Core Team, 2020).
We compared the species composition of anuran
communities of Serra Dona Francisca with other
anuran communities from subtropical Atlantic Forest
(see Table 1 in Suppl. Info. 1) using cluster analysis.
We generated a similarity matrix of species
composition for each locality through the Jaccard
index (presence-absence) using vegan package
(Oksanen et al., 2019). To check whether the
geographical distance influenced species
composition, we search for spatial autocorrelation
between species composition (the same similarity
matrix used in the cluster analysis) and geographical
distance matrix between samples (matrix of latitudinal
and longitudinal coordinates of each sampled locality)
using the Mantel test (vegan package, Oksanen et al.,
2019). All analyses were performed using the R
language (R Core Team, 2020).
RESULTS AND DISCUSSION
1. Anuran Commented List
We found 63 anuran species sampled by both SBS
and PT methods, in all four elevational localities (Table
2, Fig. 3–8). These species belong to 13 families
(number of species in parenthesis): Brachycephalidae
(4), Bufonidae (4), Centrolenidae (1), Craugastoridae
(1), Cycloramphidae (2), Hemiphractidae (2), Hylidae
(30), Hylodidae (2), Leptodactylidae (10),
Mi c r oh y l ida e (2 ) , Od ont o p hr y n ida e (3 ) ,
Phyllomedusidae (1), and Ranidae (1).
Family Brachycephalidae
Brachycephalus sulfuratus
Condez, Monteiro, Comitti, Garcia, Amaral and
Haddad, 2016
(Fig. 3A)
Vouchers - FURB 22950, 22952
Taxonomy and distribution - This is a recently
described species endemic to the Atlantic Forest
(Condez et al., 2016). Brachycephalus sulfuratus
belongs to the B. didactylus species group and occurs
in São Paulo, Paraná, and Santa Catarina states. It is
apparently widely distributed, occurring from the sea
level up to 1000 m (Condez et al., 2016).
Ecology - We did not observe any behavior of this
species in the field, once two individuals were
captured by PT and only one individual was collected
on a shrub in the forest interior during the SBS, all at
700 m altitude. The Brachycephalus' species present
endotrophic and direct development of their eggs
(Hedges, Duellman and Heinicke, 2008). They deposit
the eggs in the leaf litter, tree barks and on the soil
(reproductive mode 27 Nunes-de-Almeida et al.,
2021). Condez et al. (2016) observed this species
calling under the leaf-litter on rainy days with
reproductive activity throughout the year.
6
Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2ª época). 2022. ISSN 2393-6940Vol. 31 (2): e31.2.4
Table 1. Cont.
Sampled Locality Vegetation Relief
Sampled Point Latitude Longitude elevation Method Type of Breeding Site/ Landscape
C30 26° 9'2.59" 48°59'30.09" 73 SBS lentic temporary/edge forest
TF100 26° 9'12.26" 48°59'36.87" 99 SBS forest interior
TS100 26° 9'8.83" 48°59'36.02" 100 SBS lotic permanent/forest interior
100A 26° 9'8.93" 48°59'32.63" 97 PT forest interior
100B 26° 9'10.31" 48°59'34.13" 100 PT forest interior
100C 26° 9'10.89" 48°59'35.88" 100 PT forest interior
7Anuran Natural History from Serra Dona Francisca
Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2ª época). 2022. ISSN 2393-6940Vol. 31 (2): e31.2.4
Table 2. Amphibians' species and abundance registered in the four elevation localities of Serra Dona Francisca, Brazil. The two
sampling methods: SBS - survey at breeding sites - from October 2012 to January 2014, and PT - pitfall traps - from October 2012
to March 2013.
Taxa/Elevation localities/Methods 100 300 700 1000
SBS PT SBS PT SBS PT SBS PT
Class Amphibia - Order Anura
Brachycephalidae (2 genera, 4 species)
Brachycephalus sulfuratus Condez, Monteiro,
Comitti, Garcia, Amaral and Haddad, 2016 - - - - 1 2 - -
Ischnocnema sp. (gr. guentheri) 1 - 8 - - - - -
Ischnocnema henselii (Peters, 1872) - - - - 10 1 6 -
Ischnocnema sp. (I. lactae species series) - - 8- - - - -
Bufonidae (3 genera, 4 species)
Dendrophryniscus berthalutzae Izecksohn, 1994 - - - - 11 - - -
Rhinella ornata (Spix, 1824) 5 39 48 28 24 17 9 4
Rhinella icterica (Spix, 1824) 2 1 - - 20 1 66 18
Melanophryniscus xanthostomus Baldo, Bornschein,
Pie, Ribeiro, Firkowski and Morato, 2015 - - - - - - 4-
Centrolenidae (1 genus, 1 species)
Vitreorana uranoscopa (Müller, 1924) - - - - 4 - 15 -
Craugastoridae (1 genus, 1 species)
Haddadus binotatus (Spix, 1824) - - 2 - - - - -
Cycloramphidae (1 genera, 2 species)
Cycloramphus bolitoglossus (Werner, 1897) - - - - 1 3 1 -
Cycloramphus izecksohni Heyer, 1983 - - 9 - - - - -
Hemiphractidae (1 genus, 2 species)
Fritziana mitus Walker, Wachlevski, Nogueira-Costa,
Garcia and Haddad, 201811-45-60---Fritziana sp. - - - - - - 17 -
Hylidae (8 genera, 30 species)
Aplastodiscus sp. - - - - 29 - 41 -
Aplastodiscus ehrhardti (Müller, 1924) - - - - 9 - - -
Aplastodiscus perviridis A. Lutz in B. Lutz, 1950 - - - - - - 20 -
Boana albomarginata (Spix, 1824) 10 - - - 7 - - -
Boana albopunctata (Spix, 1824) - - - - - - 59 -
Boana bischoffi (Boulenger, 1887) - - 8 - 86 - 101 -
Boana faber (Wied-Neuwied, 1821) 9 - 3 - 23 - 58 -
Boana semilineata (Spix, 1824) 15 - 1 - - - - -
Boana semiguttata (Lutz, 1925) - - - - - - 10 -
Bokermannohyla hylax (Heyer, 1985) 6 - 7 - 12 - - -
Bokermannohyla luctuosa Pombal and Haddad, 1993 - - - - 17 - 14 -
Dendropsophus berthalutzae (Bokermann, 1962) - - 20 - - - - -
Dendropsophus elegans (Wied-Neuwied, 1824) 79 - 13 - - - - -
Dedropsophus microps (Peter, 1872) - - - - 14 - 11 -
Dendropsophus minutus (Peters, 1872) - - 1 - 16 - 465 -
Dendropsophus nahdereri (B. Lutz and Bokermann, 1963) - - - - 22 - 20 -
Dendropsophus werneri (Cochran, 1952) 66 - 19 - 29 - - -
Scinax aromothyella Faivovich, 2005 - - - - - - 30 -
Scinax catharinae (Boulenger, 1888) - - - - - - 2 -
8
MARIOTTO, L.R. et al.
Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2ª época). 2022. ISSN 2393-6940Vol. 31 (2): e31.2.4
Table 2. Cont.
Taxa/Elevation localities/Methods 100 300 700 1000
SBS PT SBS PT SBS PT SBS PT
Scinax aff. perpusillus - - 1 - 9 - - -
Scinax litorallis (Pombal and Gordo, 1991) 19 - 7 - - - - -
Scinax rizibilis (Bokermann, 1964) 2 - 1 - 9 - 3 -
Scinax fuscovarius (A. Lutz, 1925) 19 - - - 14 - 1 -
Scinax granulatus (Peters, 1871) - - - - - - 38 -
Scinax imbegue Nunes, Kwet and Pombal, 2012 110 - 25 - 54 - - -
Scinax perereca Pombal, Haddad and Kasahara, 1995 13 - 22 - 65 - 101 -
Scinax squalirostris (A. Lutz, 1925) - - - - - - 30 -
Scinax tymbamirim Nunes, Kwet and Pombal, 2012 53 - - - - - - -
Sphaenorhynchus surdus (Cochran, 1953) - - - - - - 112 -
Trachycephalus mesophaeus (Hensel, 1867) 27 - 4 - 9 - - -
Hylodidae (2 genera, 2 species)
Crossodactylus sp.- - - - 36 - - -
Hylodes perplicatus (Miranda-Ribeiro, 1926) - - 7 6 1 6 - -
Leptodactylidae (4 genera, 10 species)
Adenomera araucaria (Kwet and Angulo, 2002) - - - - 15 - 19 6
Adenomera nana Müller, 1922 7 12 4 25 27 23 22 -
Leptodactylus paranaru Magalhães, Lyra, Carvalho, Baldo,
Brusquetti, Burella, Colli, Gehara, Giaretta, Haddad, Langone,
López, Napoli, Santana, Sá and Garda, 2020 11 - 2 - 15 - 31 5
Leptodactylus notoaktites Heyer, 1978 21 9 8 2 16 2 7 -
Leptodactylus plaumanni Ahl, 1936 - - - - - - 26 2
Physalaemus aff. gracilis - - - - - - 50 13
Physalaemus cuvieri Fitzinger, 1826 22 4 - - 2 - 42 8
Physalaemus lateristriga (Steindachner, 1864) 1 - - 5 36 156 50 393
Physalaemus nanus (Boulenger, 1888) - - - - - - 17 4
Scythrophrys sawayae (Cochran, 1953) - - - 1 17 61 - -
Microhylidae (2 genera, 2 species)
Chiasmocleis leucosticta (Boulenger, 1888) 3 26 1 1 - 2 4 -
Elachistocleis bicolor (Valenciennes in Guérin-Menéville, 1838) 33 1 - - - - 22 1
Odontophrynidae (2 genera, 3 species)
Odontophrynus americanus (Duméril and Bibron, 1841) - - - - - - 4 -
Proceratophrys boiei (Wied-Neuwied, 1825) - 1 5 9 49 79 13 2
Proceratophrys subguttata Izecksohn, Cruz and Peixoto, 1999 - - - - - 2 - -
Phyllomedusidae (1 genus, 1 species)
Phyllomedusa disticta A. Lutz in B. Lutz, 1950 - - - - 2 - 4 -
Ranidae (1 genus, 1 species)
Lithobates catesbeianus (Shaw, 1802) - 1 - - - - - -
Total Richness 24 9 27 8 37 14 38 11
Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2ª época). 2022. Vol. 31 (2): e31.2.4 ISSN 2393-6940
MARIOTTO, L.R. et al. 9
Fig. 3. Some amphibians registered in Serra Dona Francisca: (A) Brachycephalus sulfuratus, (B) Ischnocnema henselii, (C)
Ischnocnema sp. (gr. Guentheri), (D) Ischnocnema sp. (I. lactae species series), I Dendrophryniscus berthalutzae, (F) Rhine-
lla ornata, (G) Rhinella icterica, (H) Melanophryniscus xanthostomus, (I) Vitreorana uranoscopa, (J) Haddadus binotatus, (K)
Cycloramphus bolitoglossus, and (L) Cycloramphus izecksohni.
Ischnocnema henselii
(Peters, 1870)
(Fig. 3B)
Vouchers - FURB 22375, 22390, 22719, 22730, 22738,
22739
Taxonomy and distribution - This species was
recently placed within the Ischnocnema guentheri
species group, and it is widely distributed in the south
portion of Atlantic Forest in the São Paulo, Paraná,
Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul states, and in
the northeast of Argentina (Conte et al., 2010, Gehara,
Canedo, Haddad and Vences, 2013).
Ecology - We registered males of I. henselii at the
altitude levels of 700 m and 1000 m, foraging and
calling in the leaf litter or on vegetation such as shrubs,
grasses, or trees, in the forest interior and in stream
banks. We observed males emitting advertisement
calls from October 2012 to January 2013 and
September 2013 to December 2013, and registered
ovigerous females in March 2013, December 2013 and
January 2014. Species of the genus Ischnocnema
have reproductive mode 27, with direct development of
the terrestrial eggs (Nunes-de-Almeida et al., 2021).
Ischnocnema sp. (gr. guentheri)
(Fig. 3C)
Vouchers - FURB 22283, 22374, 22380, 22795, 22812,
22913
Taxonomy and distribution - This species is part of
the I. guentheri species complex, cited as Candidate
Species 1 (CS1) in Gehara et al. (2013), which was
delimited by using molecular markers and bioacoustics
data. This putative species occurs from the states of
São Paulo to Santa Catarina (Gehara et al., 2013). The
calls (n=6 from two males) have similar acoustic
parameters if compared with Gehara et al. (2013), as
follows: dominant frequency 2325–2497 Hz (2403.833
± 63.294), call duration 1.880–2.440 s (2.118 ± 0.184)
and notes per call 29–35 (31.5 ± 1.974).
Ecology - We registered this species only at low
elevations (100 and 300 m). We observed calling males
in the leaf litter, at the stream banks or on the vegetation
in the forest interior, from October 2012 to March 2013;
we registered ovigerous females during November and
December 2012, and from January to March 2013.
Species of the genus Ischnocnema have reproductive
mode 27 (Nunes-de-Almeida et al., 2021).
Ischnocnema sp. (I. lactea species series)
(Fig. 3D)
Vouchers - FURB 22748, 22758, 22907, 22929
Taxonomy and distribution - This species was
assigned as part of the I. lactea species series based
on external morphology. There are three species
belonging to this species series occurring close of the
studied region: I. paranaensis, I. manezinho and I.
sambaqui. The collected individuals (adults, males)
differ from I. paranaensis by their larger size (SVL
21.3–21.8 mm in Ischnocnema sp.; 17.7 mm in I.
paranaensis, Langone and Segalla, 1996) and by the
presence of external tympanum (indistinct in I.
paranaensis). Ischnocnema sp. presents variegated
dorsal coloration that varies from brown to yellow;
thigh, shank and forearms with black stripes on dorsal
surfaces. The snout is round from dorsal view and
acuminate in profile. Because of the presence of the
internal tarsal tubercle, collected individuals are similar
to I. sambaqui, and differs from I. manezinho (internal
tarsal tubercle absent) (Garcia, 1996, Castanho et al.,
2000). The advertisement calls (n = 12, two males)
have duration of 0.140–0.270 s (0.207 ± 0.029), with
3.000–5.000 notes per call (3.916 ± 0.288), note
duration of 0.008–0.010 s (0.010 ± 0.001), and only one
pulse per note. The dominant frequency is
3014.000–3100.000 Hz (3071.333 ± 38.167), Fmin
1765.000–2282.000 Hz (2095.583 ± 130.311), and
Fmax 3875.000–4392.000 Hz (4083.750 ± 150.020).
The advertisement call of I. paranaensis is not
described, hampering any comparisons. However, we
observed differences in the call duration and number of
notes in comparison with I. manezinho (respectively,
0.79–0.97 s and 11–13 number of notes, Florianópolis
municipality, Santa Catarina state, approximately 160
km from Serra Dona Francisca, Castanho et al. 2000)
and I. sambaqui (respectively, 0.50–0.63 s and 6.0–8.0
number of notes, Guaraqueçaba municipality, Paraná
state, approximately 130 km from Serra Dona
Francisca, Castanho et al. 2000). Therefore, because
of the reasons explained above, we were not able to
assign the collected individuals to any of these three
species.
Ecology - We observed males of Ischnocnema sp.
calling during November 2013 in the forest interior, only
at 300 m of elevation level. Males of this species use
large rocks (more than 1 m from the soil) as calling
sites, besides trunks wrapped by mosses and
bryophytes. Species of the Ischnocnema genus have
the reproductive mode 27 (Nunes-de-Almeida et al.,
2021).
Family Bufonidae
Dendrophryniscus berthalutzae
Izecksohn, 1994
(Fig. 3E)
Vouchers - FURB 22282, 22474, 22720, 22901, 22908
Taxonomy and distribution - This species occurs in
coastal forests in the Paraná and Santa Catarina states
(Fusinatto, Cruz and Garcia, 2008) and belongs to the
D. brevipollicatus species group (Izecksohn, 1993).
Ecology - We registered D. berthalutzae only at the
elevation level of 700 m, foraging on the vegetation and
rocks in the forest interior. We observed calling males
on shrubs in the streams (1.5 m high), only in
November 2012, but we found females during all the
survey, and juveniles only in February 2013. This
species is usually found in bromeliads, where the eggs
are laid (reproductive mode 4 Peixoto, 1995, Nunes-
de-Almeida et al., 2021).
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MARIOTTO, L.R. et al.
Rhinella ornata
(Spix, 1824)
(Fig. 3F)
Vouchers - FURB 22166-22168, 22170-22175
Taxonomy and distribution - This species is widely
distributed from the south of Minas Gerais and Rio de
Janeiro states to the south of the state of Santa
Catarina, and from the east littoral to the west in
Argentina. It belongs to the R. crucifer species group
(Pereyra et al., 2021).
Ecology - We found individuals of R. ornata at all
elevation levels and within all sampled habitats: open
areas, forest edges and in the forest interior. We
observed calling males from October 2012 to January
2013 and from August to October 2013 in open areas
and forest edges. We captured ovigerous females
during the period of vocalization. We registered
amplected couples only at the end of October 2012.
Out of the breeding period, we captured mostly females
and juveniles in the forest interior (PT method), from
October 2012 to March 2013. This species presents the
reproductive mode 1, with eggs and exotrophic
tadpoles in lentic habitats (Nunes-de-Almeida et al.,
2021).
Rhinella icterica
(Spix, 1824)
(Fig. 3G)
Vouchers - FURB 22176, 22177, 22201, CHRP 1387,
1388
Taxonomy and distribution - The cururu toad is
widely distributed in the Atlantic Forest of the south and
southeast of Brazil and belongs to the R. marina
species group (Pereyra et al., 2021).
Ecology - We found R. icterica at all elevation levels
and observed this species in breeding activity in open
areas and in forest edges, but we also collected some
individuals in the forest interior (PT and SBS). We
observed calling males and adult females from October
2012 to January 2013, and amplected couples only at
the end of October 2012. We captured some juveniles
from October 2012 to March 2013. This species
presents the reproductive mode 1 (Nunes-de-Almeida
et al., 2021).
Melanophryniscus xanthostomus
Baldo, Bornschein, Pie, Ribeiro, Firkowski and Morato,
2015
(Fig. 3H)
Vouchers - FURB 22713, 22714, 22822, 22851
Taxonomy and distribution - Melanophryniscus
xanthostomus is a recently described species and it is
not assigned to any species group (Bornschein et al.,
2015). This species is distributed on top of mountains of
northeaster of the state of Santa Catarina (Bornschein
et al., 2015).
Ecology - We observed calling males inside
terrestrial bromeliads in the forest interior from
November 2013 to January 2014, only at the elevation
level of 1000 m. We found eggs, tadpoles and one
female near a pitfall trap fence in November 2013. As
well as reported for other species of Melanophryniscus
with this breeding behaviour, this species has the
reproductive mode 4 (Nunes-de-Almeida et al., 2021).
Family Centrolenidae
Vitreorana uranoscopa
(Müller, 1924)
(Fig. 3I)
Vouchers - FURB 22462, 22813
Taxonomy and distribution - This species inhabits
streams of the Atlantic Forest from the southeast to the
south of Brazil (Heyer, 1985a, Machado et al., 2010).
Vitreorana uranoscopa represents a species complex
with several distinct lineages (Paz et al., 2018).
Bokermann (1966) assigned Corupá municipality, state
of Santa Catarina, as the type locality of this species,
and given the proximity of the studied area (less than
15 km of airline distance from Serra Dona Francisca),
we considered this population as the nominal species
(the green dot lineage from Paz et al., 2018).
Ecology - We collected this species at the elevation
levels of 700 m and 1000 m. We observed calling males
on xaxins (Dicksonia sellowiana), palms and other
shrub leaves (up to 1 m high) in streams of the forest
interior, from November 2012 to February 2013, and
from September 2013 to January 2014; we registered
spawning on leaves pending above streams during
December 2013. This species has reproductive mode
22, with arboreal eggs hatching into exotrophic
tadpoles that drop in lotic water (Nunes-de-Almeida et
al., 2021).
Family Craugastoridae
Haddadus binotatus
(Spix, 1824)
(Fig. 3J)
Vouchers - FURB 22235, 22487, 22253
Taxonomy and distribution - This species is widely
distributed throughout the Atlantic Forest, from the
south of Bahia to Rio Grande do Sul states (Kwet,
Lingnau and Di-Bernardo, 2010, Dias, Lourenço-de-
Moraes and Solé, 2012). There is a record for Mata de
São João, state of Bahia (Brazil), that could be the
northern record for this species (Amaro, Nunes,
Canedo, Napoli and Juncá, 2013, Napoli, Menezes
and Abreu, 2017). However, individuals of H. binotatus
present some morphological differences that can
indicate a possible species complex (Amaro et al.,
2013, Napoli et al., 2017).
Ecology - We found this species only at the
elevation level of 300 m, during the SBS in the forest
interior. We have not observed individuals calling or
breeding, only in foraging activity. Haddadus binotatus
presents direct development and deposits the eggs on
the leaf litter in the forest (reproductive mode 27,
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11 Anuran Natural History from Serra Dona Francisca
Hedges, Duellman and Heinicke, 2008, Nunes-de-
Almeida et al., 2021).
Family Cycloramphidae
Cycloramphus bolitoglossus
(Werner, 1897)
(Fig. 3K)
Vouchers - FURB 22244, 22765, 22870
Taxonomy and distribution - This species occurs in
the Atlantic Forest of Paraná and Santa Catarina states
(Heyer, 1983, Conte and Rossa-Feres, 2007), and
belongs to the C. bolitoglossus species group
(Lingnau, Solé, Dallacorte and Kwet, 2008).
Ecology - We found this species at the elevation
levels of 700 m and 1000 m. We observed several
calling males after an intense rainfall in November
2013. We also found calling males in October and
November 2012, always under the leaf litter in the
forest edge and in the forest interior. Cycloramphus
bolitoglossus breeds in the humid forest soil (Lingnau
et al. 2008). There are some controversies about the
breeding behavior of this species (see Heyer, 1983);
however, it is supposed that its reproductive mode is
similar to C. stejnegeri (Noble, 1924), which consists to
terrestrial non-froth eggs laid in constructed burrow
(reproductive mode 41, Lingnau et al. 2008, Nunes-de-
Almeida et al., 2021).
Cycloramphus izecksohni
Heyer, 1983
(Fig. 3L)
Vouchers - FURB 22646, 22712, 22882
Taxonomy and distribution - This species occurs in
Serra do Mar mountain range throughout the states of
São Paulo, Paraná and Santa Catarina (Frost, 2021),
and it is included in the C. fuliginosus species group
(Verdade, 2005).
Ecology - We found C. izecksohni in hillside
streams in the forest interior all over the region at the
elevation level of 300 m. We observed calling males on
rocks, trunks, and on the soil at the stream banks, from
November 2012 to March 2013, and juveniles from
January to March 2013; females were not recorded.
Lingnau et al. (2008) reported the presence of some
females with eggs in December 2004 and January
2006, and tadpoles in the small waterfalls at the same
locality of the present study. This species has
reproductive mode 17 (Nunes-de-Almeida et al.,
2021), which is non-froth eggs laid on rock nest in lotic
water.
Family Hemiphractidae
Fritziana mitus
Walker, Wachlevski, Nogueira-Costa, Garcia and
Haddad, 2018
(Fig. 4A)
Vouchers - FURB 22489, 22922
Taxonomy and distribution - This genus is endemic
to the Atlantic Forest, and the species are popularly
named marsupial treefrogs, because females carry
fertilized eggs in the dorsum (Duellman, Jungfer and
Blackburn, 2011). Fritziana mitus is distributed along
the Atlantic Forest, from northern of the state of São
Paulo state to northern of the state of Rio Grande do
Sul (Walker et al., 2018).
Ecology - We observed calling males calling in the
canopy and understory in the forest interior, on
bromeliads and epiphytic plants, at the elevation levels
of 100 m to 700 m. The period of vocalization
comprised the rainy season, from October 2012 to
March 2013, June 2013 and October 2013 to January
2014. We have not found female carrying eggs of this
species; however, it is known that females carry the
eggs in a dorsal pouch, and after hatching, the tadpoles
are deposited in the water-filled axils of bromeliads
(reproductive mode 67, Nunes-de-Almeida et al.,
2021).
Fritziana sp.
(Fig. 4B)
Vouchers - FURB 22749, 22881, 22926
Taxonomy and distribution - We found specimens of
Fritziana sp. only in the Araucaria Forest, which
represents the first record of the genus in this
vegetation type. We cannot relate these specimens to
any other Fritziana species because of differences in
body size and colour patterns, as follows: individuals of
Fritziana sp. are larger (SVL 23.4–25.3 mm) than
Fritziana mitus (SVL 16.2–23.7 mm, Walker et al.,
2018), presents a subovoid snout in dorsal view and
slightly acute in profile, and yellowish light orange
background with dark spots evenly distributed on
dorsum.
Ecology - We observed calling males calling from
the canopy to the ground, on bromeliads and epiphytic
plants in the forest interior, only at the elevation level of
1000 m. We highlight that there is an allopatric
distribution between F. mitus, distributed only in sub-
montane and montane ombrophilous Atlantic Forest,
and Fritziana sp., occurring only in Araucaria Forest.
This pattern may be related to climatic conditions
associated to altitudinal gradient. The period of
vocalization occurred in November and December
2013. Females of this genus carry the eggs in a dorsal
pouch and after hatching, the tadpoles are deposited in
the water-filled axils of bromeliads (reproductive mode
67, Peixoto 1995, Nunes-de-Almeida et al., 2021); we
did not find any female carrying eggs.
Family Hylidae
Aplastodiscus sp.
(Fig. 4C)
Vouchers - FURB 22306, 22461, 22463, 22478, 22818
Taxonomy and distribution - The canebrake
treefrogs are distributed mostly in the Atlantic Forest,
from São Paulo to Santa Catarina states (Berneck et
al., 2016). The collected individuals belong to the A.
albosignatus species group, and the last available
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MARIOTTO, L.R. et al.
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MARIOTTO, L.R. et al. 13
Fig. 4. Some amphibians registered in Serra Dona Francisca: (A) Fritziana mitus, (B) Fritziana sp. (photo by Carlos Eduardo
Conte), (C) Aplastodiscus sp., (D) Aplastodiscus erhardti, (E) Aplastodiscus perviridis, (F) Boana albomarginata, (G) Boana
albopunctata, (H) Boana bischoffi (I) Boana faber, (J) Boana semilineata, (K) Boana semiguttata, and (L) Bokermannohyla
hylax.
phylogenetic hypothesis divided this species group
under six clades, in which the population recorded in
the present study was recognized as an undescribed
species (Aplastodiscus sp. 5, Berneck et al., 2016).
Ecology - We observed males calling from October
2012 to April 2013, and from July 2013 to January
2014, in the swamps at the forest edges and in the
forest interior, at the elevation level of 700 m. We did not
observe spawning of Aplastodiscus sp. but species of
this genus lay their eggs in underground cavities, and
after developed, tadpoles head towards a body of
water (reproductive mode 10, Nunes-de-Almeida et al.,
2021).
Aplastodiscus ehrhardti
(Müller, 1924)
(Fig. 4D)
Vouchers - FURB 22248, 22645
Taxonomy and distribution - This species occurs
from the south of the state of São Paulo, in the
municipality of Paranapiacaba, to the south coast of the
state of Santa Catarina (Conte, Lingnau and Kwet,
2005, Conte and Rossa-Feres, 2006). It belongs to the
A. albofrenatus species group (Berneck et al., 2016).
Ecology - We observed males calling from October
2012 to January 2013 and July 2013 to January 2014,
only in the forest interior, on taquaras, bromeliads and
cipós, at the elevation level of 700 m. We did not find
ovigerous females and amplected couples. As
mentioned for Aplastodiscus sp. this genus usually
presents the reproductive mode 10 (Nunes-de-
Almeida et al., 2021).
Aplastodiscus perviridis
Lutz, 1950
(Fig. 4E)
Vouchers - FURB 22236, 22285, 22307
Taxonomy and distribution - This species is widely
distributed, occurring from southeastern Brazil to the
state of Rio Grande do Sul, and north-eastern
Argentina (Frost, 2021). It is part of the A. perviridis
species group (Berneck et al., 2016).
Ecology - We recorded individuals of A. perviridis
only at the elevation level of 1000 m. We observed
males calling in open swamps and dams at the forest
edge, from October 2012 to February 2013, and from
November 2013 to January 2014. We did not find
ovigerous females or amplected couples.
Aplastodiscus perviridis reproduces in swamps or
streams and deposits the eggs in underground
cavities; after reaching advanced stages, the tadpoles
follow to adjacent water bodies (reproductive mode 10,
Nunes-de-Almeida et al., 2021).
Boana albomarginata
(Spix, 1824)
(Fig. 4G)
Voucher - FURB 22250
Taxonomy and distribution - This species occurs in
the Atlantic Forest of eastern Brazil, from state of
Paraíba to state of Santa Catarina (Frost, 2021), and
belongs to the B. faber species group (Faivovich et al.,
2005).
Ecology - We found B. albomarginata at the
elevation levels of 100 m and 700 m, occupying
herbaceous and shrubby vegetation of dams and
swamps in open areas and forest edges. We observed
males calling from October 2012 to March 2013 and
December 2013, and amplected couples in December
2012. This species deposits its eggs on the water
surface; the tadpoles are exotrophic (reproductive
mode 1, Giasson and Haddad, 2007, Nunes-de-
Almeida et al., 2021).
Boana albopunctata
(Spix, 1824)
(Fig. 4G)
Voucher - FURB 22240
Taxonomy and distribution - This species is widely
distributed in open areas in the midwest and south of
Brazil (Frost, 2021), and belongs to the B. albopunctata
species group (Faivovich et al., 2005).
Ecology - We found this species only in dams in
open areas or in the edge of the forest, at the elevation
level of 1000 m. We observed males calling perched on
grasses at the edge or inside the water body, from
October 2012 to February 2013, and from December
2013 to January 2014. We did not observe females or
spawning of B. albopunctata. This species lays eggs
directly on the water surface (reproductive mode 1 -
Muniz et al., 2008, Nunes-de-Almeida et al., 2021).
Boana bischoffi
(Boulenger, 1887)
(Fig. 4H)
Vouchers - FURB 22247, 22254, 22247,22464, 22480,
22745, 22861
Taxonomy and distribution - This species is widely
distributed in the Atlantic Forest, from the state of São
Paulo to the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Cochran,
1955, Kwet et al., 2010), and belongs to the B. pulchella
species group (Faivovich et al., 2021).
Ecology - We found individuals of B. bischoffi
foraging in both lotic and lentic environments, and
males calling only in lentic water, in dams from open
areas or on forest edges, at all elevation levels. Calling
males were observed during all the survey (specially
call type 1 - Hyla multilineata - sensu Heyer et al.,
1990), except in May 2013. Males emitted the call type
2 (sensu Heyer et al., 1990) only during the hotter
months from October 2012 to March 2013, when we
also found ovigerous females. We observed juveniles
some weeks after the beginning of the reproductive
period, at the end of November. We recorded
individuals laying their eggs on the water surface of
lentic environments. This species presents exotrophic
tadpoles (reproductive mode 1, Kwet et al., 2010,
Nunes-de-Almeida et al., 2021).
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MARIOTTO, L.R. et al.
Boana faber
(Wied-Neuwied, 1821)
(Fig. 4I)
Vouchers - FURB 22178, 22179, 22180
Taxonomy and distribution - This species is widely
distributed in Brazil and occurs mainly in the Atlantic
Forest, from the state of Rio Grande do Norte to the
state of Rio Grande do Sul. It also occurs in adjacent
formations, such as the Cerrado, and in Paraguay and
Argentina (Lavilla, Aquino, Kwet and Baldo, 2010). The
species belongs to the Boana faber species group
(Faivovich et al., 2005).
Ecology - We found individuals reproducing in dams
and swamps in open areas and forest edges at all
sampled elevation levels. We observed males calling
from October 2012 to March 2013, and from
September to December 2013; the reproduction
events occurred in the same period as the calling, once
we observed clay nests with spawns in the breeding
sites (reproductive mode 12, Nunes-de-Almeida et al.,
2021). In December 2012 and January 2013, and in the
same period of 2013 and 2014, we observed many
females and amplected couples; juveniles were
observed some weeks later.
Boana semilineata
(Spix, 1824)
(Fig. 4J)
Vouchers - FURB 22234, 22300, 22302, 22760
Taxonomy and distribution - This species occurs in
the Atlantic Forest from the state of Pernambuco to the
state of Santa Catarina (Van Sluys and Rocha, 2010),
and belongs to the B. semilineata species group
(Faivovich et al., 2005).
Ecology - We found B. semilineata in dams and
swamps in open areas and forest edges at the
elevation levels of 100 m and 300 m. We observed
males calling from October 2012 to January 2013,
using taboa as vocalization site. We did not find
females, juveniles, or spawning. However, it is known
that this species deposits its eggs on the water surface
of lentic and lotic environments; the tadpoles are
exotrophic (reproductive mode 16, Nunes-de-Almeida
et al., 2021).
Boana semiguttata
(Lutz, 1925)
(Fig. 4K)
Vouchers - FURB 22313, 22479, 22880
Taxonomy and distribution - This species belongs to
the Boana pulchella species group. Since populations
from Joinville and São Bento do Sul municipalities were
previously assigned as B. semiguttata (Faivovich et al.,
2020), we identified the population from Campo Alegre
municipality as B. semiguttata.
Ecology - We found males of B. semiguttata calling
only in December 2012 and September 2013 to
January 2014 in streams at forest edge at the elevation
level of 1000 m; some individuals were observed
foraging during other periods. We did not observe
ovigerous or spawning. The species of the B. pulchella
group deposit their eggs on the water surface, and
present exotrophic tadpoles (reproductive mode 16,
Garcia, Faivovich and Haddad, 2007, Kwet, 2008,
Nunes-de-Almeida et al., 2021).
Bokermannohyla hylax
(Heyer, 1985)
(Fig. 4L)
Vouchers - FURB 22241, CHRP 1389, 1390
Taxonomy and distribution - The forest treefrog B.
hylax occurs from the south of the state of Rio de
Janeiro (Napoli and Pimenta, 2009) to the south of the
state of Santa Catarina (Napoli and Pimenta, 2009),
restricted to the coast region and the mountain range
(Armstrong and Conte, 2010, Lucas, 2008). This
species belongs to the B. circumdata species group
(Heyer, 1985b).
Ecology - We found B. hylax at the elevation levels
of 100 m, 300 m, and 700 m, in swamps and rivulets in
the interior of the forest. We observed males calling
from October 2012 to March 2013, and from
September 2013 to January 2014. We did not observe
any reproductive behaviour other than calling males.
This species reproduces in streams, lays eggs on the
water surface, and presents exotrophic tadpoles
(reproductive modes 12, Nunes-de-Almeida et al.,
2021).
Bokermannohyla luctuosa
Pombal and Haddad, 1993
(Fig. 5A)
Vouchers - FURB 22274, 22275, 22189, 22190
Taxonomy and distribution - Bokermannohyla
luctuosa occurs in south-eastern Brazil (Napoli, 2005).
This is the first record of this species in southern Brazil.
Despite the very similar morphology between B.
circumdata and B. luctuosa, we were able to see the
subtle difference in the tubercle of finger IV, which differ
these two species (Fig. 9) (Pombal and Haddad, 1993).
Ecology - We found males of this species on the
edge and inside the forest, at the elevation levels of 700
m and 1000 m, calling from November 2012 to January
2013, and from October 2013 to January 2014. In
December 2012 we registered one female and
observed some agonistic interactions among males
placed at a small water body on the ground.
Bokermannohyla luctuosa presents the reproductive
mode 12 (Pombal and Haddad, 1993, Nunes-de-
Almeida et al., 2021).
Dendropsophus berthalutzae
(Bokermann, 1962)
(Fig. 5B)
Vouchers - FURB 22754, 22897, 22899
Taxonomy and distribution - Dendropsophus
berthalutzae occurs in the Atlantic Forest from the state
of Espírito Santo to the state of Paraná, with a record in
Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2ª época). 2022. ISSN 2393-6940Vol. 31 (2): e31.2.4
15 Anuran Natural History from Serra Dona Francisca
the state of Minas Gerais (Moura, Lacerda and Feio,
2012, Comitti, 2017). This species belongs to the D.
decipiens species group (Orrico et al., 2021).
Ecology - We found individuals of D. berthalutzae at
the elevation level of 300 m, on the herbaceous
vegetation in the forest edge. Calling males were
observed from October 2012 to March 2013. This
species laid eggs in the hanging foliage over a lentic
breeding site in February 2013 (reproductive mode 22,
Nunes-de-Almeida et al., 2021).
Dendropsophus elegans
(Wied-Neuwied, 1824)
(Fig. 5D)
Vouchers - FURB 22715, 22716, 22889, 22925
Taxonomy and distribution - This species occurs in
the Serra do Mar mountain range, from northern Bahia
(Canelas and Bertoluci, 2007; Gondim-Silva et al.,
2016) to the state of Santa Catarina (Lucas and Garcia,
2011). It belongs to the D. leucophyllatus species group
(Orrico et al., 2021).
Ecology - We found this species at elevation levels
of 100 m and 300 m, in swamps and dams in open
areas. Calling males were observed from October
2012 to February 2013, perched on herbaceous
vegetation and on the grass. We did not observe
females and spawning of D. elegans. This species lays
its eggs in the water surface (reproductive mode 1,
Bastos and Haddad, 1996, Nunes-de-Almeida et al.,
2021).
Dendropsophus microps
(Peters, 1872)
(Fig. 5E)
Vouchers - FURB 22395
Taxonomy and distribution - This species is widely
distributed in the south and southeast of Brazil (Maffei
et al., 2009), and belongs to the D. parviceps species
group (Orrico et al., 2021).
Ecology - We found D. microps only at elevation
levels of 700 m and 1000 m. Calling males were
observed from October 2012 to January 2013 and in
the same period in 2013 and 2014, perched in
herbaceous and grassy vegetation in swamps and
ponds at the edge of the forest. We did not observe
females and spawning of D. microps. This species lays
its eggs in the water surface and presents exotrophic
tadpoles (reproductive mode 1, Nunes-de-Almeida et
al., 2021).
Dendropsophus minutus
(Peters, 1872)
(Fig. 5F)
Vouchers FURB 22237, 22381, 22860, 22879, 22898
Taxonomy and distribution – This species is widely
distributed all over the South America (Frost, 2021),
and belongs to the D. minutus species group (Orrico et
al., 2021). Despite its wide distribution, there are
several lineages within this nominal species (Gehara et
al., 2014).
Ecology - We found D. minutus at all elevation
levels, occupying swamps, dams, and streams in open
areas and in the forest edge areas. Calling males were
observed from October 2012 to March 2013, and from
August 2013 to January 2014, using herbaceous
vegetation and bushes as calling sites. We found
ovigerous females and amplected couples during
November and December 2012 and 2013. This species
lays its eggs on the water surface, and presents
exotrophic tadpoles (reproductive mode 1, Nunes-de-
Almeida et al., 2021).
Dendropsophus nahdereri
(Lutz and Bokermann, 1963)
(Fig. 5G)
Vouchers - FURB 22471, 22472
Taxonomy and distribution - This species is
restricted to the south of Brazil, mostly recorded in the
state of Santa Catarina (Conte et al., 2010), and
belongs to the D. marmoratus species group (Orrico et
al., 2021).
Ecology - We found D. nahdereri in open areas and
in the forest edge at elevation levels of 700 m and 1000
m. Calling males were observed on the ground,
perched on herbaceous vegetation or in trees near
water bodies, from October 2012 to January 2013, and
from July 2013 to January 2014. We observed
amplected couples only in November 2012. This
species lays its eggs in lentic environments, and
presents exotrophic tadpoles (reproductive mode 1,
Haddad et al., 2013, Nunes-de-Almeida et al., 2021).
Dendropsophus werneri
(Cochran, 1952)
(Fig. 5C)
Vouchers - FURB 22382, 22392, 22797, 22800, 22940
Taxonomy and distribution - This species occurs in
the Serra do Mar mountain range, from Rio de the state
of Janeiro to the state of Rio Grande do Sul (Pombal
and Bastos, 1998; Freire et al., 2016), and belongs to
the D. microcephalus species group (Orrico et al.,
2021).
Ecology - We found individuals of D. werneri in
herbaceous vegetation of dams and swamps in open
areas and on the edge of the forest at elevations of 100
m, 300 m, and 700 m, sometimes syntopically to D.
berthalutzae. We observed calling males from October
2012 to March 2013, and from November 2013 to
January 2014. Some females were sporadically
observed close to males, but we did not observe
spawning of this species. Dendropsophus werneri lays
its eggs on the water surface in lentic environments and
presents exotrophic tadpoles (reproductive mode 1,
Nunes-de-Almeida et al., 2021).
Phyllomedusa distincta
Lutz, 1950
(Fig. 8A)
Vouchers - FURB 22243, 22245
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MARIOTTO, L.R. et al.
Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2ª época). 2022. Vol. 31 (2): e31.2.4 ISSN 2393-6940
MARIOTTO, L.R. et al. 17
Fig. 5. Some amphibians registered in Serra Dona Francisca: (A) Bokermannohyla luctuosa, (B) Dendropsophus berthalut-
zae, (C) Dendropsophus werneri, (D) Dendropsophus elegans, (E) Dendropsophus microps, (F) Dendropsophus minutus,
(G) Dendropsophus nahdereri, (H) Scinax aromothynella, (I) Scinax catharinae, (J) Scinax littoralis, (K) Scinax rizibilis, and
(L) Scinax fuscovarius.
Taxonomy and distribution - This species occurs
from south of São Paulo to north of Rio Grande do Sul
states (Kwet et al., 2010), and belongs to the P.
burmeisteri species group (Pombal and Haddad, 1992;
Faivovich et al., 2010).
Ecology - We found individuals of P. distincta
foraging at the elevation level of 1000 m, and males
calling in a swamp at the elevation level of 700 m, all
at the edges of the forest, only in October 2012. We
did not observe females or spawning, but this species
lays its eggs in foliage hanging over lentic breeding
sites (reproductive mode 37, Nunes-de-Almeida et al.,
2021).
Scinax aromothyella
Faivovich, 2005
(Fig. 5H)
Vouchers - FURB 22259, 22314, 22647, 22772, 22723,
22891, 22944.
Taxonomy and distribution - This species occurs in
Uruguay, Argentina, and Brazil in the state of Paraná
(Pereyra et al., 2012).
Ecology - We found S. aromothyella in temporary
swamps from only in open areas, at elevation level of
1000 m. Calling males were observed in herbaceous
vegetation, in February, November and December
2013, and January 2014. We recorded ovigerous
females in the same period and in September 2013. We
did not observe the reproductive mode of this species,
which remains unknown.
Scinax catharinae
(Boulenger, 1888)
(Fig. 5I)
Vouchers - FURB 22239, 22281, 22311,22746
Taxonomy and distribution - This species occurs in
the mountain regions of the state of Santa Catarina and
Rio Grande do Sul (Lutz, 1973). There are some
records in the interior of Santa Catarina (Lucas and
Fortes, 2008) and Paraná states (Machado and
Bernarde, 2002, Crivelari et al., 2014), but in some of
these records the identification is uncertain (Scinax cf.
catharinae). The type locality of the species is
imprecise (Sierra do Catharina, Boulenger, 1888a), but
Lutz (1973) suggested that it is probably the mountains
of northern of the state of Santa Catarina, where the
German immigrants settled.
Ecology - We found individuals foraging in a stream
at the edge of the forest, only at the elevation level of
1000 m, from November 2012 to March 2013, and
October 2013. We did not observe the reproductive
behaviour, which species remains unknown.
Scinax littoralis
(Pombal and Gordo, 1991)
(Fig. 5J)
Vouchers - FURB 22278, 22280, 22711
Taxonomy and distribution - This species occurs
from São Paulo (Pombal and Gordo, 1991) to state of
Santa Catarina (Lucas and Garcia, 2011), and belongs
to the Scinax catharinae group (Faivovich et al., 2005).
Ecology - We found individuals of S. littoralis in
swamps and streams at the edge of the forest, at
elevation levels of 100 m and 300 m. Calling males
were observed on the shrubby vegetation, from
October 2012 to March 2013; only one female was
found in February 2013. This species presents the
reproductive mode 7, with eggs and tadpoles in
bromeliad axils (Toledo et al., 2012) and reproductive
modes 1 or 2, with exotrophic eggs and tadpoles in
lentic or lotic water breeding sites (Pombal and Gordo,
1991, Nunes-de-Almeida et al., 2021).
Scinax rizibilis
(Bokermann, 1964)
(Fig. 5K)
Vouchers - FURB 22371, 22372, 22391, 22473, 22869
Taxonomy and distribution - This species occurs
from the state of São Paulo (Bokermann, 1964) to the
state of Rio Grande do Sul (Kwet et al., 2010) and
belongs to the S. catharinae species group (Faivovich
et al., 2005).
Ecology - We found S. rizibilis in lentic
environments, such as swamps and dams at the forest
edge and in the forest interior, at all sampled elevation
levels. Calling males were observed on the shrubby
vegetation from October 2012 to March 2013, and we
found only one female, in October 2012. We did not
observe spawning. This species lays its eggs on the
water surface (Bokermann, 1964) and uses foam nests
to protect the eggs (reproductive mode 65, Haddad,
Pombal and Gordo, 1990, Nunes-de-Almeida et al.,
2021).
Scinax sp. (gr. perpusillus)
Vouchers - no vouchers
Taxonomy and distribution This species is
morphologically and ecologically similar to the species
belonging to the Scinax perpusillus group, which are
distributed from the state of Espírito Santo to the state
of Paraná (Faivovich et al. 2005). Despite Bertha Lutz
(1973), in her book “Brazilian Species of Hyla(1973)
provided the species occurrence for Guaramirin and
Joinville municipalities, state of Santa Catarina, Brazil,
we did not collect individuals, hampering further
comparisons. The advertisement calls (n = 9, one
male) have the following parameters: Fmin
3617.000–3789.000 Hz (3707.777 ± 50.166), Fmax
4608.000–4780.000 Hz (4732.222 ± 58.661), Fdom
4134.000–4177.000 Hz (4167.444 ± 18.961), call
duration 0.205–0.278 s (0.249 ± 0.026), 3–4 notes per
call (3.777 ± 0.440), note duration 0.029–0.046 s
(0.034 ± 0.003), 7–12 pulses per note (9.527 ± 1.922).
Scinax aff. perpusillus differs from S. perpusillus by the
lower dominant frequency (4134–4177 Hz), longer
duration (0.200–0.270 s), and higher number of pulses
(7–12 pulses/note) (4554–4856 Hz, 0.007–0.018 s,
3–5 pulses/note, Rio de Janeiro municipality, Rio de
Bol. Soc. Zool. Uruguay (2ª época). 2022. ISSN 2393-6940Vol. 31 (2): e31.2.4
18
MARIOTTO, L.R. et al.
Janeiro state, 700 km from Serra Dona Francisca,
Pombal and Bastos 2003). Nevertheless, we kept the
population of the study area as S. aff. perpusillus.
Ecology - We did not observe individuals of this
species, but we heard several males calling in the
epiphytic bromeliads occurring one to two meters from
the ground, at the edge of the forest and in the forest
interior. We recorded this species at altitude levels of
300 m and 700 m, from October to December 2012,
and from December 2013 to January 2014. Is worth to
note that species belonging to the Scinax perpusillus
group are bromeligenous that lays their eggs in the
accumulated water of tank bromeliads (reproductive
mode 4, Peixoto, 1995, Nunes-de-Almeida et al.,
2021).
Scinax fuscovarius
(Lutz, 1925)
(Fig. 5L)
Vouchers - FURB 22258, 22299
Taxonomy and distribution - This species is widely
distributed in the eastern Brazil from Alagoas to Rio
Grande do Sul states, and in the northern Argentina,
northern and eastern Paraguay, and Bolivia, from 150
to 1800 m elevation (Frost, 2021), and belongs to the S.
ruber species group (Faivovich et al., 2005).
Ecology - We found individuals of S. fuscovarius at
elevation levels of 100 m, 700 m, and 1000 m, in
temporary or permanent lentic environments in open
areas and in forest edges areas. We observed males
calling in herbaceous vegetation and grasses, from
October 2012 to February 2013, and from November
2013 to January 2014. We did not find females or
spawning. This species lays its eggs on the water
surface and presents exotrophic tadpoles
(reproductive mode 1, Kwet et al. 2010, Nunes-de-
Almeida et al., 2021).
Scinax granulatus
(Peters, 1871)
(Fig. 6A)
Vouchers - FURB 22648, 22710, 22764, 22771
Taxonomy and distribution - This species is widely
distributed south of South America, occurring in north-
eastern Argentina, Uruguay, in the Brazilian states of
Paraná, Santa Catarina, and Rio Grande do Sul, and in
south-eastern Paraguay (Conte et al., 2010; Frost,
2021), and belongs to the S. ruber species group
(Faivovich et al., 2005).
Ecology - We found S. granulatus only at elevation
level of 1000 m. Calling males were observed in
temporary or permanent lentic environments, perched
on herbaceous vegetation at open areas, from
November 2012 to April 2013, and from August 2013 to
January 2014. We did not find females or spawning.
This species presents the reproductive mode 1
(Nunes-de-Almeida et al., 2021), and presents
exotrophic tadpoles (Kwet et al. 2010, Nunes-de-
Almeida et al., 2021).
Scinax imbegue
Nunes, Kwet and Pombal, 2012
(Fig. 6B)
Vouchers - FURB 22284, 22823, 22921
Taxonomy and distribution - This species is widely
distributed in the south and southeast of Brazil (Frost,
2021) and it is endemic to the Atlantic Forest (Nunes,
Kwet and Pombal, 2012). Scinax imbegue belongs to
the S. ruber species group (Nunes et al., 2012).
Ecology - We found S. imbegue in temporary and
permanent lentic environments in open areas and in
forest edges, at elevation levels from 100 m to 700
m. We observed males calling in herbaceous
vegetation and grasses, from October 2012 to March
2013, and from September 2013 to January 2014; we
found amplected couples in October and December
2012. This species has its nest absent, with non-froth
floating eggs laid in lentic water (reproductive mode
1; Nunes et al. 2012, Nunes-de-Almeida et al., 2021).
Scinax perereca
Pombal, Haddad and Kasahara, 1995
(Fig. 6C)
Vouchers - FURB 22238, 22386, 22482, 22488, 22824
Taxonomy and distribution - Scinax perereca is
known only from a few localities in the states of São
Paulo to Rio Grande do Sul states in Brazil, and
Misiones Province in north-eastern Argentina; likely in
south-eastern Paraguay (Frost, 2021). This species
belongs to the S. ruber group (Pombal, Haddad and
Kasahara, 1995; Faivovich et al., 2005).
Ecology - We found S. perereca in temporary and
permanent lentic environments in open areas and in
forest edge areas, at all sampled elevation levels. We
observed calling males on herbaceous vegetation or
in underground cavities, from October 2012 to March
2013, and from September 2013 to January 2014.
We also observed this species in forested areas,
calling on tree trunks up to 60 cm from the ground,
and did not find spawns or females. This species
presents the reproductive mode 1 (Nunes-de-
Almeida et al., 2021), with spawning laid in lentic
environments and with exotrophic tadpoles (Kwet et
al. 2010).
Scinax tymbamirim
Nunes, Kwet and Pombal, 2012
(Fig. 6D)
Vouchers - FURB 22257, 22722, 22896, 22903, 22946
Taxonomy and distribution - This species is widely
distributed in the south and southeast of Brazil (Frost,
2021), endemic to the Atlantic Forest (Nunes